Literally meaning misdeed or neglect of duty, the term is sometimes used simply as a synonym for crime or deviance, but it better refers to a particular kind of rule-breaking that falls somewhere between the deviant and the seriously criminal; where the rules are minor laws or significant social norms. It is often qualified as juvenile delinquency in recognition of the fact that a great deal of minor crime is committed by teenage and young men, many of whom give it up when they acquire adult responsibilities. Many early studies of juvenile delinquency, especially those associated with the Chicago School explained it by reference to the organisation of urban gangs, delinquent subcultures and the limits on the legitimate opportunities for working-class men. Critical criminologists have sometimes romanticised delinquency by presenting it as a form of resistance to oppressive dominant values.